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Associated Data Data are available from the institutional data access of University of Lausanne contact corresponding author for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. Abstract Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states i. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear.
The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers.
From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives. We distinguished units of meaning, which were grouped into sequences of experience; each sequence was then categorized as one of the three vitality states: state of vitality preservation SVP , state of vitality loss SVL or state of vitality revival SVR.
SVR did not discriminate finishers from withdrawers.
The temporal organization of the vitality states showed a significant difference in the emergence of SVP from the second quarter of the race, as well as a significant difference in the emergence of SVL from the third quarter of the race. The analysis of adaptations to SVL confirmed that finishers were more capable of exiting SVL by enacting a preservation world when they felt physical or psychological alerts, whereas withdrawers remained in SVL.
Our results showed that finishers and withdrawers did not enact the same phenomenological worlds in the race situation, especially in the organization of vitality adaptations and their relationships to difficulties; the cumulative effect of the succession of experienced vitality states differed, as well. Introduction Trail running has become a popular sport over the last 40 years, as noted by Hoffman et al.
Trail running is no longer practiced by a minority of elite runners, but has also become accessible to non-professional runners [ 3 ] despite the need for high investment and compromise in terms of training, work schedule and personal life [ 4 ]. The races consist of semi-autonomous running along marked trails in natural environments and impose considerable constraints that the runners must adapt to, raising effort, logistic and safety issues. The distances vary between 20 kilometers to more than kilometers, with ultra-trail races generally more than 80 kilometers.
Ultra-trail racing has therefore been considered an extreme sport or even a dangerous activity [ 5 ]. There are multiple ways to analyze this type of ultra-endurance performance. In this case, studies are based on the assumption that performance is dependent on two types of factors: a before-the-race factors, which include, for example, training habits [ 6 ], the impact of training characteristics on running-related injuries [ 7 ], and physical, mental and tactical preparation [ 4 ], and b during-the-race factors, which include sleep-deprivation effects [ 8 ] and neuromuscular damage [ 9 ].
Other determinants of performance have been examined by isolating specific characteristics, without distinguishing between these two types of timed factors; these include mood states [ 10 ], cognitive functioning [ 11 ], personality traits [ 12 ], emotions [ 13 ], sarcomere disruption [ 14 ], and alteration of jump height mechanics after a mountain footrace [ 15 ].
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Another trend in cognitive science has developed in this direction and consists of investigating the way people integrate physiological and psychological factors into a mental unity that emerges at the psycho-phenomenological level [ 17 , 18 ]. From this perspective, human activity is a Embedded in the whole dynamics of the changing situation [ 19 ], b Extended by tools or cultural artifacts e.
Phenomenology benefits from a philosophical background and has shown its practical applications in research in the cognitive sciences [ 24 ]. The objectives of the phenomenological approach are to analyze experience and describe a phenomenon in terms of how it emerges at the level of consciousness [ 25 ].
Furthermore, by analyzing experience in context, phenomenology roots its analysis in the pre-reflectively experienced lived body [ 27 ]. This experience is the sense including bodily, emotional, cognitive, action and situational dimensions that corresponds to the manner by which people make worlds emerge, in which they have being and act [ 30 ]. Therefore, Di Paolo et al. Cognition can thus be conceived as a form of embodied action in which a person creates meaning by interacting autonomously with the environment, leading to fluctuations in experience.
By rooting the analysis of these fluctuations in the enactive paradigm, which encompasses the dimensions of experience, meaning and asymmetrical interactions, we argue that it is possible to obtain the temporal organization of the salient phenomenological states that characterize experience.
Our challenge was to define the nature of these states, which are singular, context-dependent and peculiar to each runner; therefore, we assumed there would be many conceivable phenomenological states. The findings opened new possibilities for analyzing trail running experience by suggesting that the runners went through various phenomenological states that could be clearly labeled in categories.
In the same vein, qualitative studies of ultra-endurance runners identified three major states in finishers related to effort management. The first concerned the stressors that impact their experience i.
The second concerned the protective processes aiming at preserving oneself, such as psychological coping strategies like setting short-term goals, pace monitoring, hydration and nutrition, and social support [ 16 ]. The third state concerned positive emotions, such as group cohesiveness during a part of the race, self-awareness or mental stamina emerging during effort [ 33 ], and positive self-talk [ 4 ] to revive vitality during the race.
Interestingly, these states correspond to the findings of other targeted studies in physiology that had to do with the state of suffering. Moreover, long-distance effort was found to lead to emotional disturbances and negative energetic balances [ 13 ]. Your base walking speed is 40 feet.
Your four legs give you advantage on Strength and Dexterity saving throws made against effects that would knock it prone.
You must wear barding usually made of studded leather instead of normal armor and cannot wear boots designed for humanoids.
Accustomed to twilit plains and the night sky, you have superior vision in dark and dim conditions. You can see in dim light within 60 feet of you as if it were bright light, and in darkness as if it were dim light.
You cant discern color in darkness, only shades of gray. Keen Senses. You have proficiency in the Perception skill. Spell Resistance. You have advantage on saving throws against spells.
You can speak, read, and write Common and Celestial. Genasi are descended from elemental-related creatures, such as efreet, dao, djinn, jann, and marids, among others.
Most of them have had no direct contact with their elemental forebears, but the signs of their heritage are apparent. Genasi take great pride in their distinctive features and abilities. Genasi are a varied race, being the mixture of human and elemental blood.
As such, they are commonly classified into four categories, each representative of one of the four elements.
However, rumors exist of genasi representing other elements as well. Genasi usually have names appropriate to the culture in which they were raised, though many rename themselves in order to seem more exotic. Air genasi names are often flowing names that avoid harsh consonants. Earth genasi names tend to be contain more hard syllables than soft. Fire genasi names tend to be short and easy to say. Water genasi tend to use just one name, which often rises and falls like waves, starting and ending with soft syllables with hard, sharp sounds in the middle.
Male Names. Genasi mature at the same rate as humans do and reach adulthood around the age of They live much longer than humans, however, often exceeding years.
Genasi share the chaotic bent of their elemental heritage. They value both personal freedom and creative expression, and their aloofness about anything other than themselves often leads them to being neutral.
They chafe at rules, resent others' demands, and sometimes prove unreliable, or at least unpredictable. Genasi are about the same size and build as humans. Your base walking speed is 30 feet.
Thanks to your elemental heritage, you have superior vision in dark and dim conditions. You can speak, read, and write Air Genasi Air genasi see themselves as the inheritors of the sky, the wind, and the very air of the world.
They are most often neutral, They appear mostly human, with one or two unusual traits reflecting their quasielemental nature, such as a light blue color to their skin or hair, a slight breeze in their presence at all times, or flesh that is cool to the touch. They care little for their appearance and tend to have windtossed hair and much-mended clothes. Their emotions vary quickly between calm reserve and great intensity.
Your Dexterity score increases by 2, and your Intelligence score increases by 1. Elemental Resistance.
Graceful, regal, and noble, aasimars are the
You have resistance to lightning and thunder damage. Mingle with Wind. You can cast the levitate spell once per day. Intelligence is your spellcasting ability for it.
Air genasi do not breathe, so they are immune to drowning, suffocation, and attacks that require inhalation such as some types of poisons. Primordial Language. You can speak, read, and write Auran. You can speak, read, and write T e r r a n.
Earth Genasi Earth genasi are slow to act, ponderous in thought, and set in their ways. They are most often neutral.
They appear mostly human, with one or two unusual traits reflecting their quasielemental nature, such as earthlike skin, rough facial features, or eyes like black pits. They favor neutral colors and simple clothing, and while some appear to inadvertently collect dirt on their clothes, others keep a neat and polished appearance. Your Constitution score increases by 2, and your Strength score increases by 1. Natural Armor.
You have advantage on saving throws against petrification. Merge with Stone. You can cast the pass without trace spell once per day. Charisma is your spellcasting ability for this spell. Whenever you make an Intelligence History check related to the origin of stonework, you are considered proficient in the History skill and add double your proficiency bonus to the check, instead of your normal proficiency bonus.
Fire Genasi Fire genasi are hot-tempered and quick to anger, proud and unafraid to take action.
They appear mostly human, with one or two unusual traits reflecting their, quasi-elemental nature, such as skin the color of burnt coal, red hair that waves like flames, or eyes that glow when the genasi is angry. They prefer to dress simply and elegantly, although their fashions can be more flamboyant than the most outrageous trend.
Your Intelligence score increases by 2, and your Dexterity score increases by 1.
5e Planescape Races
You have resistance to fire damage. Reach to the Blaze.
You know the produce flame cantrip. Once you reach 3rd level, you can cast the burning hands spell once per day as a 2nd-level spell. Once you reach 5th level, you can also cast the flaming sphere spell once per day.
Intelligence is your spellcasting ability for these spells.site Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. The analysis of adaptations to SVL confirmed that finishers were more capable of exiting SVL by enacting a preservation world when they felt physical or psychological alerts, whereas withdrawers remained in SVL.
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