This is an edited version of the Introduction to my book Digital Art, Aesthetic Creation: The Birth of a Medium, published by Routledge in their Advances in Art . View Digital Arts Research Papers on sandmilgnigeco.ga for free. Composite Photographs - 12 Artists and Their Work, 1st Edition (Hardback) - sandmilgnigeco.ga 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The process behind the act of the art creation or the creation process from book Handbook of Multimedia for Digital Entertainment and Arts (pp ).
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FINE ARTS/DIGITAL ART. Mission Statement. The mission of the Department of Art complements that of the University by striving "to empower each individual. The digital arts—from graphic design to photography to animation—enhance our ability to communicate around the world, both professionally and socially. Preparing Digital Art for Cadmus Professional Communications in Adobe InDesign Windows into the document. We do not support importation of PDF.
The computer-generated image is electronically produced.
Indeed, since, in digital art one is transported via a real sensory simulacrum rather than by imagination alone, the effect is all the more aesthetically complete. Of course, generally speaking, the gap between what any artwork is, as a human creation, and the imaginative world it opens up, is always aesthetically significant — in distinctive and positive ways on the basis of the medium involved.
In the case of digital art, the gap between identity and effect is so extreme as to have the quasi-magical aesthetic effect just described. The image was created in , but the sculpture itself was generated between and through a program on a Siemens computer directing a Sinumerik milling machine. The work consists of a field of squares grouped in three columns of six in the upper left quadrant, complex diagonals that join contiguous squares umbilically, and descend into horizontal layers with some slight disordering.
This is one aspect of a broader disordering factor spread across much of the field. It arises from variations in the distribution and sizes of the squares, and their having shadowed edging on two sides —which gives them a strong three-dimensional appearance. The digital origins of this work are visually manifest in the precise optical push- pull effects that arise from the features just described.
In concert, they do not give the impression of being drawn, or sculpted, or even of being machine-made. Rather they suggest the precision arising from digital composition.
The visual upshot of all this is a configuration that, in visual terms, shifts to and fro - from the appearance of a mere static pattern to that of an insistently physical field of units, where the units are striving to change their positions.
Although the squares occupy places that we know to have been allocated to them rigidly by a program, at the same time many of them seem visually animated and resistant to such placing.
Electronically processed information here issues in forms that seem palpable and living. Through this, broader associations with physical changes in nature are suggested - specifically, the decomposition and recomposition of granular bodies at a microscopic level.
And all this from mere equations and formulae… Let us also consider a second example — this time from a mode that combines temporal realization and digital mediation of an environment. One of the most important exponents of the latter in the Postmodern era is Erwin Redl. His environmental remodeling is based on visual effects produced by installations of LED lights.
These are traversed by a second circular grid that appears to move slowly through each of the monitors from left to right, and a duplicate one that performs a similar movement from right to left. In the course of these motions the contrast between the lighter and darker lines in the grid is gradually diminished, until the monitors become a uniform gray.
When this monochrome saturation is reached, all visual motion ceases. It recommences only when the contrast levels are once more increased. This cycle of motion and diminution is correlated with sound effects. Short acoustic signals accompany the movement of the grids only to diminish into uniform gray noise with the arrival of the total monochrome. The sound process recommences in correlation with the relaunch of the grid motion. The key to the work is that the monitors generate visual transformations without having to create any depth illusion.
Corner Study II involves, rather, a visual process with overtones of metaphysical narrative. Extensive magnitude is our sensation of how much space a thing occupies in itself or moves through.
These sensations are basic to our cognition of the world. They are implicit in almost everything we experience — from things moving close to us, or away from us; to different degrees of emotional feeling and feelings of pleasure or pain. In effect, they are one of those factors in cognition that act as an horizon — a cognitive capacity that allows diverse stimuli to be processed in terms of a consistent pattern of intelligibility.
In this respect, we often explicitly remark on big something is, or on the spatial path it has followed. Even more, we report on how intense or weak the effect of such a stimulus has been upon us. But what we hardly ever remark upon is the horizon of extensive and intensive magnitude that is embodied in such judgments.
Corner Study II in effect, presents these as an horizon by using an iconic idiom of digitality, namely the monitor.
This becomes a vehicle that models the horizon of magnitude. In effect, it is a phenomenological reduction to essence performed by technological means. The metaphysical importance of this is that the pattern of intelligibility associated with the horizon of magnitude concerns fundamentals of Being in any sense — how things become strong — through occupying space; and how they weaken through dissipation of the form that has allowed them to occupy space in just way.
From a finite embodied perspective, this is — as a phenomenon - cyclical. We may be able to intervene on specific instances of it, but as a metaphysical phenomenon, it happens in general terms whether we will it or not. At the same time, of course, the distinctive things about humans is that they are self-conscious rational beings who can comprehend such processes and make them into something understood, rather than something one is just the victim of, or deals with as best one can.
Corner Study II engages with all the aforementioned factors. It models an horizon of human cognition with a perspicacity and, indeed, aesthetic presence that is not available through understanding alone; it also models the more metaphysical context which this horizon makes intelligible, namely, growth, movement, and dissolution as a cycle of Being.
Of course, one might film processes of change with a view to evoking this context. One might even do it through the computer animation of abstract forms. However, the particular idiom employed by Redl in this work has a digital imprimatur that is ruthlessly minimal. There are no figurative distractions. The relation between extensive and intensive magnitude is presented as process with an extraordinary aesthetic purity.
The main point to gather, then, is surprisingly simple. Digital configurations that visually affirm the imprimatur of their digitality, have an intrinsic aesthetic fascination. The realm of technology here conjures up the sensory in terms that sometimes seem more real than reality itself.
This creates a unique aesthetic space that intervenes upon both perception and our experience of finite existence. Generally speaking, this does not require any recognition or wonder at the origins of the image or at how we interact with the computer.
Digital R&D Fund for the Arts
For example, in the case of ordinary computer games, the player is immersed psychologically in an interactive process that leads to a successful outcome or defeat. The originator of the game, and the character of the programme may sometimes elicit admiration from the players, but this is not the purpose of the game nor is it a requirement in order for it to be played.
With other works and programmes, in contrast, attention becomes focussed on the particular identity of the visual creation. This is the realm of digital creation regarded as art. Throughout this book we will encounter many different and powerful embodiments of the digital imprimatur that embody the aesthetics of quasi-magic in very different ways.
In emphasizing the aesthetic factors just discussed, we are responding on the lines set out in our Methodological Prologue to further points raised by Andreas Broeckmann. Moments of understanding and achieved fulfillment are never fixed in place completely. This, indeed, is the very essence of our finitude.
However, in the making of pictures or abstract works — in analogue and digital media. We preserve a final configuration in an enduring medium. By being refined through an artistic medium, the visual configuration is taken to a higher stage by refining the experience of our own personal style of being. Indeed, the artist embodies this in a medium whereby others can share his or her sense of what is visually important about the represented state of affairs, or abstract configuration.
The artist, as it were, eternalizes a possibility of experience. The very fact that the static image does not change when the rest of the world does, allows it to focus feelings and associations that rise above — however slightly — the inexorable flux of all things.
Digital Painting Techniques: Practical Techniques of Digital Art Masters
This is why traditional modes of pictorial art have never been rendered obsolete by subsequent visual art inventions such as photography, film, and digital media. Whatever medium it is embodied in, the still-image has a unique aesthetic function that engages with some of the deepest aspects of being finite, and which the different media present in ways that are individually distinctive to them.
But, it might be objected, digital composition surely cannot have this felt significance because it is based mainly on dry algorithmic creation. Of course, the aesthetic worth and artistic status of digital works in general has long been controversial. The digital images on which Benthall based his initial judgment were admittedly relatively simplistic in compositional terms, but Return to a Square points ahead - in its presentation of one shape morphing into another — to an aspect of digital art that has since been taken to extraordinary levels of complexity in terms of both static and dynamic digital imagery.
The images created might , in principle, be executable through traditional means, but the key point is that without computer programmes, to even conceive final outcomes of this complexity would scarcely be possible. Something of what is at issue here is brought out in the following remarks by Duane Palyka another artist whose work will be addressed in Chapter 3.
The creation of images must have some logical visual flow from one to another to add order to the composition but, unlike the programming which generates it, the system of images will not collapse from the slightest deviation from logical conscious order.
In fact, the deviations are what give emotion and tension to the piece. In effect, the work involves compositional strategies. However, the artist can then chose whether or not to follow the suggestion, or perhaps to modify it. When complete, the digital image exists on the computer screen or is physically externalized in a printout or whatever.
In many of these latter cases, we will recognize that the lines, textures, and coloring is of such precision or complexity or both that it can be assumed to have been created on a computer. In most cases, of course, the work will actually be presented in a broader context announcing it as computer-generated.
However, this knowledge is itself an aesthetic condition. To recognize an image or unique possibility of interactivity as computer generated is to recognize a distinctive aesthetic effect. It has an aesthetic character based on work. The digitally generated image in contrast, emphasizes finish.
In the case of painting and sculpture, the autographic element is a potential distraction from reading the representational content of the work.
But digital virtual realization carries no such restrictions. It is possible for the digital medium to project three-dimensional content so comprehensively that it can even exceed the real three-dimensional effects of Super Realist sculpture. It affirms, rather, the look of the technological — a lucidity of appearance that connotes things being under control, and made more efficient.
In this sense, it is the perfect expression of that naturalization of technology which is an iconological fundamental of Postmodern art. It symbolizes our belonging to the techno-habitat. However, there is a deeper and more paradoxical level based on the relation between this look and how we reflect upon it.
The digitally generated work can involve an aesthetics of quasi-magic. We know it has been planned and designed technologically through information processing. However, the fact that an image of such sensory precision or complexity or combinations thereof has these abstract informational origins is all the more extraordinary.
This connects to something deep. A finite rational being knows its endeavours are limited by bodily constraints. Yet we often yearn to escape those constraints — to find a means to create material things through thought alone. He or she, in effect seeks abstract formulae to cast the spell that will conjure up sensible configurations. Of course, this is not literally magic, but the transition from electronic data to final work leaves a gap — it is something that cannot be exactly followed in perceptual terms; we cannot see how the information transforms into visual configuration.
Indeed, we cannot ever explain why the universe — out of all the forms it might have taken — should allow such generations of sensible structure from mere electronically processed information. The gap between information and digital visual realization is, accordingly filled with mystery, and it is this which gives the digital imprimatur its unique aesthetic fascination.
There is a felt harmony between the power of creative thought and the world of the senses through the quasi-magical leap from one to the other — as focussed in the particularity of the work.
It might be asked why similar effects do not arise from photography. The answer is that photography also is technologically-based, but in a way that merely preserves a trace of sensory presence.
It is causally rigid — dependent on the direct impact of light from its object. Photography has its own unique aesthetic characteristics, but they are different from those of digital works. The computer-generated image is electronically produced. Indeed, since, in digital art one is transported via a real sensory simulacrum rather than by imagination alone, the effect is all the more aesthetically complete.
Of course, generally speaking, the gap between what any artwork is, as a human creation, and the imaginative world it opens up, is always aesthetically significant — in distinctive and positive ways on the basis of the medium involved. In the case of digital art, the gap between identity and effect is so extreme as to have the quasi-magical aesthetic effect just described.
The image was created in , but the sculpture itself was generated between and through a program on a Siemens computer directing a Sinumerik milling machine.
The Fundamentals of Digital Art
The work consists of a field of squares grouped in three columns of six in the upper left quadrant, complex diagonals that join contiguous squares umbilically, and descend into horizontal layers with some slight disordering. This is one aspect of a broader disordering factor spread across much of the field. It arises from variations in the distribution and sizes of the squares, and their having shadowed edging on two sides —which gives them a strong three-dimensional appearance. The digital origins of this work are visually manifest in the precise optical push- pull effects that arise from the features just described.
In concert, they do not give the impression of being drawn, or sculpted, or even of being machine-made. Rather they suggest the precision arising from digital composition.
The visual upshot of all this is a configuration that, in visual terms, shifts to and fro - from the appearance of a mere static pattern to that of an insistently physical field of units, where the units are striving to change their positions. Although the squares occupy places that we know to have been allocated to them rigidly by a program, at the same time many of them seem visually animated and resistant to such placing.
Figure 4. Smart Cities and the Myth of Interactivity The smart city is an urban space engineered to manage resources with maximized efficiency. This is implemented through electronic data collection systems which allow built structures to respond intelligently to human stimuli.
What constitutes intelligent interactivity will become mediated by these technologies which fully regulate the population via the passive collection of data on its habitual trends. In his book The City is NotATree,C hristopherAlexanderwritesabouthowconceptionsofarchitectural interactivity have been confined to information transmitted between the eyeball and the hard drive.
When the light is red, people who are waiting to cross the street stand idly by the light; and since they have nothing to do, they look at the papers displayed on the newsrack which they can see from where they stand.
Some of them just read the headlines, others actually download a paper while they wait. These physical systems are already systems of interactivity—by existing in the world and reacting to human stimuli, they form networks of information between a myriad of agents and objects.
Physical systems which allow chaos to occur vs. The crosswalk model described by Alexander can be contrasted with a vision for the smart city crosswalk, temporarily installed in South London by urban technology developer Umbrellium. Figure 5.
In a promotional video for the project, a pedestrian is absorbed in her mobile device and unknowingly walks into oncoming traffic. The smart crosswalk detects this trajectory and lights up a LED crosswalk beneath her feet. This appears as an improvement to public safety, but it comes ingrained with a contradiction.
Table of contents
The user was not engaged with the physical world because they were engrossed in a virtual one, but the proposed solution for the issue is more technology, another layer of cybernetic abstraction. Conversely, this prototype leads to less interaction between the users and their environments; it blurs the line between image and world, allowing users to move seamlessly between the two as they collapse into a singularity. The example of the smart city shows how models of interactivity have been ingrained in processes of digitized data collection in which the active citizen becomes a point on a graph.
Total digital connectivity ignores how information transmitted between analog systems is also interactive without being recorded in a database. A techno-futurism is one in which the body is simulated and phantasmic, a semi-presence in a world of automation. Not only do these smart cities reinforce surveillant biopolitical agendas e. While the smart city gives the illusion of structural fluidity, it is precisely the opposite in practice: the population is passively regulated and responds mechanistically, choosing between a limited selection of possible outcomes selected by an elite class of architects and engineers.
What is lost is the ability and freedom to mould our own physical environments. This represents a flattening of skills and the disembodiment of the working mind.
In the mass exodus of the hand-making from urban culture, urban citizens are stripped of a wide array of empirical knowledge such as how to build furniture or grow food from the earth, leading to a kind of tactile starvation and depreciation of skills that are explicitly tangible to the body. The disappearance of communities of makers can be seen as a symptom of this transference of skills. Hackney Wick was home to over artist studios in Artists lived in cooperatives within converted warehouses, often with people per unit Brown, These concentrated spatial arrangements became foundational to the community which thrives within it—garbage found on the street was collected and made into murals, graffiti artists climbed perilous heights to vandalize high-rise apartments, and underground raves took place deep within the Hackney Marshes to the tune of hand-made sound systems.
The Digital Arts In and Out of the Institution—Where to Now?
Figure 6. Exterior and interior drawings of the Victoria Wharf warehouses These warehouses, which were once home to industrial plants, have been refurbished by hand and made into workspaces where artists can freely rearrange its elements without contact with the landlord.
In this way, warehouses units operate as individual ecosystems rather than isolated singularities such as apartment buildings or suburban-style houses. This generates communities where many objects are communal and resources are managed with egalitarian efficacy. By seeking to live cheaply and autonomously, these artists form communities rooted in the unique spatiality and material resonance of their habitats.
But what were once self-sustaining communes are quickly being disappeared due to the expansionist nature of capital accumulation. Figure 7. Stour Space studios Figure 8.
Picture of a high-rise apartment development in Hackney Wick. These walls use an anti-graffiti coating so that real paint can be regularly hosed off There is a tension between the cultural desire for self-made spaces and the commodification and eventual dissolution of these spaces.
This becomes advertised as such simply because of its rarity. It connotes a kind of authenticity and devotion that people, increasingly cast as passive consumers rather than active citizens, feel is otherwise missing from their lives. With citizenship comes moral responsibility, yet how can we be responsible for a world that comes to us ready-made?
This following sections describe the theoretical foundation for my aesthetic endeavors, which seek to emancipate digitized data in order to create interactive sculptures that are tangible to the senses.
The Materiality of Music I.Under this perspective and considering, mainly, the work of Gilbert Simondon about the genesis of the technical object, as well as, the proposal of Yuk Hui about the digital object, this paper proposes the idea of a digital artistic object, and a computer algorithm as a first approach to exemplify the proposal. Equilibrio no caos e vice versa: We know it has been planned and designed technologically through information processing.
Software solutions are often incongruent with the material world, as they oversimplify already existing political problems, further complicating them until they spiral into madness. Digital art. The Aesthetics of Digital Art.
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