Professional Linux kernel architecture / Wolfgang Mauerer. p. cm. Includes pleasure in documenting and explaining Linux kernel internals. He is also the. Find an introduction to the architecture, concepts and algorithms of the Linux kernel in Professional Linux Kernel Architecture, a guide to the kernel sources and. Jim, Yes, I see your generous offer of 20% off. But you appear to have missed my point. You have provided a temporary discount of 20% of the price off the dead.
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If hardware has to communicate with a system, an interrupt on the processor does the trick, and this is passed on to the Linux kernel. Linux kernel interfaces The Linux kernel offers various interfaces to the user space applications that perform a variety of tasks and have different properties. The Linux API is the kernel-userspace API; it gives access to programs in the user space into the system resources and services of the kernel.
This is explained as the interface that exists between program modules. Defining an important ABI is majorly the work of Linux distributions than it is for the Linux kernel.
A specific ABI should be defined for each instruction set, for example, x System Call Interface As earlier discussed, this plays a more prominent role in the kernel. It is a denomination of the whole part of all existing system calls.
It declares the API together with utility interfaces and command line shells. A readahead feature.
Getrandom call that is present in V 3. System calls such as futex, epoll, splice, dnotify, fanotify and inotify. The modular kernel Previous versions of the Linux kernel were in such a way that all their parts were statically fixed into one, monolithic.
However, modern Linux kernels have most of their functionality contained in modules that are put into the kernel dynamically. This in contrast to monolithic types, is referred to as modular kernels.
Such a setup allows a user to load or replace modules in a running kernel without the need of rebooting. However, you may want to add a code while the kernel is running.
The code added this way is referred to as a loadable kernel module. These particular modules perform various tasks but are specified into three: device drivers, file system drivers and system calls. The loadable kernel module can be compared to the kernel extensions in other operating systems. You can put a module into the kernel by either loading it as an LKM or binding it into the base kernel.
The benefits of LKMs over binding into the base kernel: Rebuilding your kernel often is not necessary, saving time and avoids errors. They assist in figuring out system problems such as bugs. LKMs save you space as you only have them loaded when you need to use them. Give much faster maintenance and debugging time.
Uses of LKMs Device drivers; the kernel exchanges information with hardware through this. Filesystem drivers; this translates the contents of a filesystem System calls; programs in the user space utilize system calls to acquire services from the kernel. Network drivers; interprets a network protocol Executable interpreters; loads and manages an executable. Compiling the Linux Kernel Unlike what most people say, compiling the Linux kernel is a simple task.
The following is a step-by-step illustration of the process using one of the Linux distributions : Fedora 13 KDE. It is advisable to backup your data and grub. While in your downloads directory, extract the kernel source from the archive by entering the following command in terminal: tar xvjf Linux Use a configuration say xconfig, These configurations are designed to make it easier to run any program in Linux.
Specify the modules and features you wish your kernel to contain. After acquiring the.
What is Linux?
Run the new-kernel-pkg to build the list of module dependencies and stuff like grub. To achieve this, one has to first back up the. The steps are: Get the latest source code from the main kernel. Reconfigure the kernel based on the preceding kernel configuration file you had backed up.
Build the new kernel. Now you can install the new build the kernel. Downloading the new source; the Linux kernel developers understand that some users may not want to download the full source code for the kernel updates, as this would waste time and bandwidth.
Therefore, a patch is made available which can upgrade an older kernel release. Users only need to know which patch applies to a particular version, since a kernel patch file will only update the source code from one specific release. The different patch files can be applied through the following ways; Stable kernel patches which apply to the base kernel version.
Base kernel release patches only apply to the previous base kernel version Incremental patch upgrade from a particular release to the next release. This allows developers avoid the hustle of downgrading then upgrading their kernel. Instead, they can switch from their current stable release to the next stable release. Here are more detailed steps for the process to update your kernel from source on Debian , and from pre-built binaries on CentOS and Ubuntu.
Conclusion The Linux kernel mainly acts as a resource manager acting as an abstract layer for the applications. The applications have a connection with the kernel which in turn interacts with the hardware and services the applications.
Linux is a multitasking system allowing multiple processes to execute concurrently.
The Linux kernel is popular due to its open source nature that allows users to alter the kernel to what is suitable for them and their hardware. Therefore it can be used in a variety of devices, unlike other operating systems. The modular characteristic of the Linux kernel adds more thrill to its users. This is because of the wide variety of modifications that can be made here without rebooting the system.
The flexibility gives its users a big room to actualize their imaginations. The OS is comprised of a number of pieces: The Bootloader: The software that manages the boot process of your computer. For most users, this will simply be a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes away to boot into the operating system.
The kernel is the core of the system and manages the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. Daemons: These are background services printing, sound, scheduling, etc that either start up during boot, or after you log into the desktop.
Mauerer W. Professional Linux Kernel Architecture
This is the shell — a command process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface. This is what, at one time, scared people away from Linux the most assuming they had to learn a seemingly archaic command line structure to make Linux work. This is no longer the case. With modern desktop Linux, there is no need to ever touch the command line.
Graphical Server: This is the sub-system that displays the graphics on your monitor. Desktop Environment: This is the piece of the puzzle that the users actually interact with. Each desktop environment includes built-in applications such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, games, etc.
Applications: Desktop environments do not offer the full array of apps. Just like Windows and Mac, Linux offers thousands upon thousands of high-quality software titles that can be easily found and installed. Most modern Linux distributions more on this in a moment include App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation.
For example: Ubuntu Linux has the Ubuntu Software Center Figure 1 which allows you to quickly search among the thousands of apps and install them from one centralized location.
The Ubuntu software center is a Linux app store that carries thousands of free and commerical applications for Linux. Why use Linux? This is the one question that most people ask. Why bother learning a completely different computing environment, when the operating system that ships with most desktops, laptops, and servers works just fine?
To answer that question, I would pose another question. Or are you constantly battling viruses, malware, slow downs, crashes, costly repairs, and licensing fees? Linux has evolved into one of the most reliable computer ecosystems on the planet.Successfully reported this slideshow.
The steps are: Get the latest source code from the main kernel.
SlideShare Explore Search You. Network drivers; interprets a network protocol Executable interpreters; loads and manages an executable. With modern desktop Linux, there is no need to ever touch the command line. It uses every conceivable feature of the I could find, as it was also a project to teach me about the Linux kernel-based Android OS on smartphones has made Linux beat its competition to be the largest installed OS base of all general-purpose operating systems.