Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior,. Eleventh Edition. Dennis Coon / John O. Mitterer. Senior Psychology Editor: Marianne Taflinger. like your authors, the odds are you are curious about human behavior. Gateway QUESTIONS . Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods. Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior 13 th ed. Introduction : The Psychology of Studying—Reflective Learning. Gateway QUESTIONS.
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Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior, Eleventh Edition Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind, Third Edition. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Dennis Coon is a publishing phenomenon and one of the best-selling authors in the field of psychology. His innovative. sandmilgnigeco.ga: Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior ( ): Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer: Books.
Why You Do Things
Cross-cultural psychology looks at different ways of living and different views of the world. Developmental psychology is interested in how people develop and change through their lives.
This includes what used to be called "child psychology". Educational or school psychology tests and helps students to learn and make friends. Evolutionary psychology studies how evolution may have shaped the way people think and do things.
Neuropsychology looks at the brain and how it works to make people the way they are. Motivation : the root causes of action Perceptual psychology asks questions about how people make sense of what they see and hear and how they use that information to get around. Social psychology looks into how groups of people work together and how societies build and work.
Scientific approaches[ change change source ] Psychology is a type of science , and research psychologists use many of the same types of methods that researchers from other natural and social sciences use. Psychologists make theories to try to explain a behavior or pattern they see.
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Based on their theory they make some predictions. They then carry out an experiment or collect other types of information that will tell them whether their predictions were right or wrong. Some types of experiments cannot be done on people because the process would be too long, expensive, dangerous, unfair, or otherwise unethical.
There are also other ways psychologists study the mind and behavior scientifically, and test their theories. Psychologists might wait for some events to happen on their own; they might look at patterns among existing groups of people in natural environments; or they might do experiments on animals which can be simpler and more ethical to study.
Psychology shares other things with natural sciences, as well. For example, a good psychological theory may be possible to prove wrong. Just like in any natural science, a group of psychologists can never be completely sure that their theory is the right one. If a theory can be proved wrong, but experiments do not prove it wrong, then it is more likely that the theory is accurate.
This is called falsifiability. Psychologists use many tools as part of their daily work. In work settings, for instance, productivity can be increased by using extrinsic rewards such as a bonus. However, the actual quality of the work performed is influenced by intrinsic factors.
If you are doing something that you find rewarding, interesting, and challenging, you are more likely to come up with novel ideas and creative solutions. Motivation to Learn Intrinsic motivation is an important topic in education. Teachers and instructional designers strive to develop learning environments that are intrinsically rewarding.
Unfortunately, many traditional paradigms suggest that most students find learning boring so they must be extrinsically goaded into educational activities.
They identify several different ways to make learning environments that are intrinsically rewarding.
The authors define activities as intrinsically motivating if "people engage in it for its own sake, rather than in order to receive some external reward or avoid some external punishment. We use the words fun, interesting, captivating, enjoyable, and intrinsically motivating all more or less interchangeably to describe such activities. These goals may also relate to their self-esteem when performance feedback is available. Curiosity: Internal motivation is increased when something in the physical environment grabs the individual's attention sensory curiosity.
It also occurs when something about the activity stimulates the person to want to learn more cognitive curiosity. Control: People want control over themselves and their environments and want to determine what they pursue. Cooperation and competition: Intrinsic motivation can be increased in situations where people gain satisfaction from helping others.
It also applies to cases where they are able to compare their own performance favorably to that of others.
Recognition: People enjoy having their accomplishment recognized by others, which can increase internal motivation. Our Perspective on Rewards Differs Experts have noted that offering unnecessary rewards can have unexpected costs.
While we like to think that offering a reward will improve a person's motivation , interest, and performance, this isn't always the case. For example, when children are rewarded for playing with toys that they already enjoy playing with, their motivation and enjoyment of those toys actually decreases.
It is important to note, however, that a number of factors can influence whether the intrinsic motivation is increased or decreased by external rewards.
Salience or the significance of the event itself often plays a critical role. An athlete competing in a sporting event might view the winner's prize as confirmation of the winner's competence and exceptionalism. On the other hand, some athletes might view the same prize as a sort of bribe or coercion.
The way in which the individual views the importance of different characteristics of the event impacts whether the reward will affect a person's intrinsic motivation for participating in that activity.
A Word From Verywell The concept of intrinsic motivation is fascinating.
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In your own life, there are probably many things you do which fall into this category and these are important elements for a well-balanced life. For instance, if we spend all of our time working to make money, we may miss out on the simple pleasures of life.Get to Know Us.
Refuge in a Troubled Time. However, the actual quality of the work performed is influenced by intrinsic factors. Amy is most likely a a.
When was the last time you did something simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself? Presently, the American Psychological Association consists of at least how many different divisions, each reflecting special skills or areas of interest?
Everything you need for finals and exams. Which of the following groups serves as a point of reference for a comparison of results in an experiment? A psychologist whose viewpoint is psychodynamic a.
Of course, that isn't to say that intrinsically motivated behaviors do not come with their own rewards.
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