AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ANDREW CARNEGIE.: from satisfactory, he was very wakeful, adding with a twinkle in his eye: *'But I get a bit fine doze i' the kirk. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . BY ANDREW CARNEGIE. The problem of our age is the proper administration of wealth, so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor.
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The Andrew Carnegie Story. Page 2. There are three phases to Andrew Carnegie's life. The first is centred in Dunfermline where he was born on the 25"' . PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie by Andrew Carnegie - ZillionTech. Andrew Carnegie (), in ANDREW CARNEGIE. AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF. ANDREW CARNEGIE written , published My mother took the.
Employers no longer recognize employees, since it is impossible to have direct communication with hundreds of them. As a result, the interpersonal dynamic is deteriorated. Wages being the primary source of dispute between employers and employees widens the gap even more. This is a result of the law of competition which forces business owners to cut their expenditures. However, although it does have such drawbacks, this law has a positive aspect : it acts as a guarantor of future expansion and growth.
It is true that individuals may suffer, but society in whole benefits from this system. The Law of Competition 2. Distribution of Wealth 3. Capitalism has proven far superior to other systems, allowing people with different skills and abilities to find their economic level, and discouraging artificial boundaries. Distribution of Wealth The capitalistic system provides opportunities for any member of society, but only the most privileged amass a vast excess of wealth that exceeds what they need for leading a comfortable life.
They have three options for distribution of this surplus: Pass it on as an inheritance after their death. Fund institutions and projects posthumously. MIt was that morning, "When shaU I see you again? Butmy brother Tom should have been there also; this was the thought that came. Rousseau wished to die to the strains of sweet music. I have had many letters from readers speaking of this pas ashore fashion, with blue jacket and white trousers.
I sage in my book, some of the writers going so far as to say thought him the most beautiful man I had ever seen. It came from the heart and He took me to a refreshment stand and ordered a perhaps that is why it reached the hearts of others. To this day burgh steamer in the Firth of Forth.
As I was about nothing that I have ever seen of the kind rivals the im to be taken from the small boat to the steamer, I rushed age which remains in my mind of the gorgeousness of to Uncle Lauder and clung round his neck, crying out: I cannot leave you!
Often as I have passed the identi from him by a kind sailor who lifted me up on the deck cal spot I see standing there the old woman's sarsapa of the steamer. Upon my return visit to Dimfermline rilla stand, and I marvel what became of the dear old this dear old fellow, when he came to see me, told me it sailor.
I have tried to trace him, but in vain, hoping was the saddest parting he had ever witnessed. During the seven weeks his declining years. He was my idealTom Bowling, and of the voyage, I came to know the sailors quite well, when that fine old song is sung I always see as the "form learned the names of the ropes, and was able to direct of manly beauty" my dear old friend Barryman. Well; by his kindness on the the ship being undermanned, the aid of the passengers voyage he made one boy his devoted friend and admirer.
In consequence I was invited We knew only Mr. Sloane in New York by the sailors to participate on Sundays, in the one parents of the well-known John, Willie, and Henry delicacy of the sailors' mess, plimi duff. I left the ship Sloane. Sloane Euphemia Douglas was my with sincere regret.
The arrival at New York was bewildering.
I had Sloane and my father had been fellow weavers. We been taken to see the Queen at Edinburgh, but that was called upon them and were warmly welcomed. It was a the extent of my travels before emigrating.
Glasgow we genuine pleasure when Willie, his son, bought ground had not time to see before we sailed. New York was the from me in opposite our New York residence for first great hive of human industry among the inhabit- his two married daughters so that our children of the ants of which I had mingled, and the bustle and excite third generation became playmates as our mothers ment of it overwhelmed me.
The incident of our stay in were in Scotland. New York which impressed me most occurred while I was My father was induced by emigration agents in New walking through Bowling Green at Castle Garden. I was York to take the Erie Canal by way of Buffalo and caught up in the arms of one of the Wiscasset sailors, Lake Erie to Cleveland, and thence down the canal to Robert Barryman, who was decked out in regular Jack- Beaver a journey which then lasted three weeks.
There was no As usual, my mother came to the rescue. There was railway communication then with Pittsburgh, nor in no keeping her down.
In her youth she had learned to deed with any western town. The Erie Railway was bind shoes in her father's business for pin-money, and under construction and we saw gangs of men at work the skill then acquired was now turned to account for upon it as we traveled. Nothing comes amiss to youth, the benefit of the family. Phipps, father of my and I look back upon my three weeks as a passenger friend and partner Mr.
Henry Phipps, was, like my upon the canal-boat with unalloyed pleasure. All that grandfather, a master shoemaker. He was our neighbor was disagreeable in my experience has long since faded in Allegheny City. Work was obtained from him, and in from recollection, excepting the night we were com addition to attending to her household duties for, of pelled to remain upon the wharf-boat at Beaver wait course, we had no servant this wonderful woman, my ing for the steamboat to take us up the Ohio to Pitts mother, earned four dollars a week by binding shoes.
This was our first introduction to the mosquito Midnight would often find her at work. In the intervals in all its ferocity. My mother suffered so severely that during the day and evening, when household cares in the morning she could hardly see. We were all would permit, and my young brother sat at her knee frightful sights, but I do not remember that even the threading needles and waxing the thread for her, she stinging misery of that night kept me from sleeping recited to him, as she had to me, the gems of Scottish soundly.
I could always sleep, never knowing "horrid minstrelsy which she seemed to have by heart, or told night, the child of hell. Our friends in Pittsburgh had been anxiously waiting This is where the children of honest poverty have to hear from us, and in their warm and affectionate the most precious of all advantages over those of wealth.
We took up The mother, nurse, cook, governess, teacher, saint, all our residence with them in Allegheny City. A brother in one; the father, exemplar, guide, counselor, and of my Uncle Hogan had built a small weaver's shop at friend! Thus were my brother and I brought up.
What the back end of a lot in Rebecca Street. This had a has the child of millionaire or nobleman that counts second story in which there were two rooms, and it compared to such a heritage? My uncle not prevent her neighbors from soon recognizing her soon gave up weaving and my father took his place and as a wise and kindly woman whom they could call began making tablecloths, which he had not only to upon for counsel or help in times of trouble.
Many have weave, but afterwards, acting as his own merchant, to told me what my mother did for them. So it was in travel and sell, as no dealers could be found to take after years wherever we resided; rich and poor came to them in quantity. He was compelled to market them her with their trials and found good counsel. She tow himseK, selling from door to door. The returns were ered among her neighbors wherever she went.
Then she took her two boys in her arms and told us not to mind her foolishness. I had just completed my thirteenth threatened to have her prisoners "chopped into as year, and I fairly panted to get to work that I might many pieces as there are checks in the tartan.
The pros the reason for the outburst was different. It was not pect of want had become to me a frightful nightmare. Better death. Yes, mother would have taken to keep us without being dependent upon others. Akeen witnessed. Never can I forget it. He said, with the sense of honor, independence, seK-respect, pervaded the kindest intentions in the world, to my mother, that I household. Walter Scott said of Burns that he had the was a likely boy and apt to leam; and he believed that most extraordinary eye he ever saw in a human being.
As Burns has it: I never knew what an en Beamed keen with honor. My mother was sitting sewing at the moment, but she sprang to her feet with Anything low, mean, deceitful, shifty, coarse, under outstretched hands and shook them in his face. Tom "What! I would rather throw him into the having such a mother and such a father, for the father, Allegheny River. Leave me! Hogan went. She stood a tragic queen. Blackstock, an old Scotsman in the cellar of the bobbin factory.
It was too much for me. Allegheny City, where we lived. In this factory he also I found myseK night after night, sitting up in bed obtained for me a position as bobbin boy, and my first trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the work was done there at one dollar and twenty cents steam was too low and that the workers above would per week.
It was a hard life. In the winter father and complain that they had not power enough, and at I had to rise and breakfast in the darkness, reach the another time that the steam was too high and that the factory before it was daylight, and, with a short interval boiler might burst. The hours hung heavily But all this it was a matter of honor to conceal from upon me and in the work itself I took no pleasure; but my parents.
They had their own troubles and bore the cloud had a silver lining, as it gave me the feeling them. I must play the man and bear mine. My hopes that I was doing something for my world our family. What it was to be I knew not, but that it gave me such happiness as my first week's earnings.
Besides, at this I was now a helper of the family, a breadwinner, and date I was not beyond asking myseK what Wallace no longer a total charge upon my parents. Often had would have done and what a Scotsman ought to do. I heard my father's beautiful singmg of "The Boatie Of one thing I was sure, he ought never to give up. Rows" and often I longed to fulfill the last lines of the One day the chance came. Hay had to make verse: He had no clerk, and was himself a poor "When Aaleck, Jock, and Jeanettie, penman.
The result pleased They'll serve to gar the boatie row. I was also good at figures; and he I was going to make our tiny craft skim. It should be soon found it to be to his interest and besides, dear noted here that Aaleck, Jock, and Jeanettie were first old man, I believe he was moved by good feeling to to get their education. Scotland was the first country ward the white-haired boy, for he had a kind heart and that required all parents, high or low, to educate their was Scotch and wished to relieve me from the engine children, and established the parish public schools.
John Hay, a fellow-Scotch manu one feature. I spools in vats of oil. Fortunately there was a room re went, and received two dollars per week; but at first served for this purpose and I was alone, but not all the the work was even more irksome than the factory. I never succeeded family council that was held. No bird that ever was confined in a cage oil. Even Wallace and Bruce proved impotent here.
But longed for freedom more than I. Mother favored, but if I had to lose breakfast, or dinner, I had all the better father was disposed to deny my wish. It would prove appetite for supper, and the allotted work was done.
A real disciple of Wallace or Bruce could not give up5 I'or the two dollars and a half per week offered it was he would die first.
Late at My service with Mr. Hay ter. Upon the whole my father said that it was best that kept his books in single entry, and I was able to handle I should remain where I was. He subsequently withdrew them for him; but hearing that all great firms kept their his objection, sofar as to give me leave to try, and I be books in double entry, and after talking over the matter lieve he went to Mr. Hay and consulted with him. Hay thought it would be for my advantage, and al and William Cowley, we all determined to attend night though, as he said, it would be an inconvenience to him, school during the winter and leam the larger system.
Williams in Pittsburgh kind enough to say that my old place would be open and learned double-entry bookkeeping. One evening, early in , when I returned home This being decided, I was asked to go over the river from work, I was told that Mr. David Brooks, manager to Pittsburgh and call on Mr. My father wished of the telegraph office, had asked my Uncle Hogan if he to go with me, and it was settled that heshould accom knew where a good boy could be found to act as mes pany me as far as the telegraph office, on the corner of senger.
Brooks and my uncle were enthusiastic Fourth and Wood Streets. It was a bright, sunshiny draught-players, and it was over a game of draughts morning and this augured well. Father and I walked that this important inquiry was made. Upon such trifles over from Allegheny to Pittsburgh, a distance of nearly do the most momentous consequences hang.
A word, two miles from our house.
Arrived at the door I asked a look, an accent, may affect the destiny not only of father to wait outside. I insisted upon going alone up individuals, but of nations. He is a bold man who calls stairs to the second or operating floor to see the great anything a trifle.
Who was it who, being advised to dis man and learn my fate. I was led to this, perhaps, be regard trifles, said he always would if any one could tell cause I had by that time begun to consider myself some him what a trifle was? The young should remember that thing of an American.
At first boys used to call me upon trifles the best gifts of the gods often hang. Brooks than if my good old dollars a week, begrimed with coal dirt, without a trace Scotch father were present, perhaps to smile at my airs. Therewas scarcely about, and my wholeStiiiday suit. I had at that time, and a minute in which I could not learn something or find for a few weeks after I-entered the telegraph service, but out how much there was to learn and how little I knew.
There was nothing that heroine did ness houses to which messages had to be delivered. Father's long factory hours tried one side of the street and down the other. Before long I could shut my eyes and, beginning The interview was successful. I took care to explain at the foot of a business street, call off the names of the that I did not- know Pittsburgh, that perhaps I would firms in proper order along one side to the top of the not do, would not be strong enough; but all I wanted street, then crossing on the other side go down in regu was a trial.
He asked me how soon I could come, and lar order to the foot again. I said that I could stay now if wanted. And, looking Thenext step was to know the men themselves, for it back over the circumstance, I think that answer might gave a messenger a great advantage, and often saved well be pondered by yoimg men. It is a great mistake not a long journey, if he knew members or employees of to seize the opportunity.
The position was offered to me; firms. He might meet one of these going direct to his something might occur, some other boy might be sent oflfice. It was reckoned a great triumph among the boys for. Having got myself in I proposed to stay there if to deliver a message upon the street.
And there was the I could. I soon found opportunity to boy and compliment him. It had not yet recovered frora the that I had got the situation. The entire population in and around Pittsburgh made, and not a ton of steel for many a year thereafter. The business portion of The pig iron manufacture at first was a total failure the city did not extend as far as Fifth Avenue, which was because of the lack of proper fuel, although the most then a very quiet street, remarkable only for having the valuable deposit of coking coal in the world lay within theater upon it.
Federal Street, Allegheny, consisted of a few miles, as much undreamt of for coke to smelt iron straggling business houses with great open spaces be stone as the stores of natural gas which had for ages tween them, and I remember skating upon ponds in' lain untouched under the city.
The site of There were at that time not half a dozen "carriage" our Union Iron Mills was then, and many years later, people in the town;and not formany years after was the a cabbage garden. General Robinson, to whom I delivered many a tele As late as , perhaps, the most notable financial graph message, was the first white child born west of the event which had occurred in the annals of Pittsburgh Ohio River. I saw the first telegraph line stretched from was the retirement from business of Mr.
How great a sum that seemed then and road, brought by canal from Philadelphia and unloaded how trifling now 1 from a scow in Allegheny City.
There was no direct My position as messenger boy soon made me ac railway communication to the East. Passengers took quainted with the few leading men of the city. The bar the canal to the foot of the Allegheny Mountains, over of Pittsburgh was distinguished. Judge Wilkins was at which they were transported to Hollidaysburg, a dis its head, and he and Judge MacCandless, Judge Mc- tance of thirty miles by rail; thence by canal again to Clure, Charles Shaler and his partner, Edwin M.
Stan- Columbia, and then eighty-one miles by rail to Phila ton, afterwards the great War Secretary "Lincoln's delphia a journey which occupied three days. In business circles among prominent men and from Cincinnati, for daily communication had been who still survive, Thomas M.
Howe, James Park, C. The business of the city was largely that of Hussey, Benjamin F. A rolling mill senger boys looked as models, and not bad models either, as their lives proved. The senior office. He was made my companion and we of a message; bakers' and confectioners' shops, where had to deliver all the messages from the Eastern line, sweet cakes were sometimes given to him.
He met with while two other boys delivered the messages from the very kind men, to whom he looked up with respect; West.
The Eastern and Western Telegraph Companies they spoke a pleasant word and complimented him on were then separate, although occupying the same build his promptness, perhaps asked him to deliver a message ing. I do not know a situation great bond being that he was Scotch; for, although in which a boy is more apt to attract attention, which is "Davy" was born in America, his father was quite as all a really clever boy requires inorder to rise.
Wise men much a Scotsman, even in speech, as my own father. This I had no difficulty in doing in for messages delivered beyond a certain limit. These my chum, Robert Pitcairn, later on my successor as " dime messages," as might be expected, were anxiously superintendent and general agent at Pittsburgh of the watched, and quarrels arose among us as to the right PennsylvaniaRailroad.
Robert, likemyself, wasnot only of delivery. In some cases it was alleged boys had now Scotch, but Scotch-born, so that "Davy," "Bob," and and then taken a dime message out of turn.
It was the duty of the boys to sweep week. I was appointed treasurer. Peace and good-humor the office each morning, and this we did in turn, so it reigned ever afterwards. This pooling of extra earnings will be seen that we all began at the bottom.
It was my first essay in financial orgamza- Brothers, and W. It is not the rich man's son that the young struggler spend these dividends, and the adjoining confectioner's for advancement has to fear in the race of life, nor his shop had running accounts with most of them.
The ac nephew, nor his cousin. Let him look out for the "dark counts were sometimes greatly overdrawn. Every other evening they were re quired to be on duty until the office closed, and on these eights it was seldom that I reached home before eleven o'clock.
On the alternating nights we were relieved at six. There came, however, like a blessing from above, a means by which the treasures of liter ature were unfolded to me. Colonel James Anderson I bless his name as I Write announced that he would open his library of four himdred volumes to boys, so that any young man could take out, each Saturday afternoon, a book which could be exchanged for another on the succeeding Sat urday. My friend, Mr. Thomas N. Miller, reminded me recently that Colonel Anderson's books were first opened to working boys," and the question arose whether messenger boys, clerks, and others, who did not work with their hands, were entitled to books.
My first com munication. So my first appearance as a Colonel. Later, when fortune smiled upon me, one of public writer was a success. It stands in front of the Hall and Library lived near Colonel Anderson and introduced me to him, in Diamond Square, which I presented to Allegheny, and in this way the windows were opened in the walls of and bears this inscription: He opened his of night service were lightened by the book which I car Library to working boys and upon Saturday after ried about with me and read in the intervals that could noons acted as librarian, thus dedicating not only be snatched from duty.
And the future was made bright his books but himself to the noble work. This monu by the thought that when Saturday came a new volume ment is erectedin grateful remembrance by Andrew could be obtained. In this way I became familiar with Carnegie, one of the "working boys" to whom were Macaulay's essays and his history, and with Bancroft's thus opened the precious treasures of knowledge and imagination through which youth may ascend.
History of the United States," which I studied with more care than any other book I had then read.
Lamb's This is but a slight tribute and gives only a faint idea essays were my special delight, but I had at this time of the depth of gratitude which I feel for what he did no knowledge of the great master of all, Shakespeare, for me and my companions. It was from my own early beyond the selected pieces in the school books. My taste experience that I decided there was no use to which for him I acquired a Httle later at the old Pittsburgh money could be applied so productive of good to boys Theater.
Wilson, Thomas N. Miller, ambition to develop it, as the founding of a publiclibrary William Cowley members of our circle shared in'a commimity which is willing to support it as a mu with me the invaluable privilege of the use of Colonel nicipal institution. I am sure that the future of those Anderson's library.
Books which it would have been im libraries I have been privileged to found will prove the possible for me to obtain elsewhere were, by his wise correctness of this opiniom For if one boy in each library generosity, placed within my reach; and to him I owe a district, by having access to one of these libraries, is half taste for literature which I would not exchange for all as much benefited as I was by having access to Colonel the millions that were ever amassed by man.
Life would Anderson's four hundred well-worn volumes, I shall be quite intolerable without it. Nothing contributed so consider they have not been established in vain. Youths in Century Magadne July, It gave me great satisfaction to discover, the door of the theater in the evening, with the timid many years later, that my father was one of the five request that the messenger might be allowed to slip weavers in Dmifermline who gathered together the few upstairs to the second tier a request which was al books they had and formed the first circulating library ways granted.
The boys exchanged duties to give each in that town. The history of that library is interesting. It grew, and In this way I became acquainted with the world that was removed no less than seven times from place to lay behind the green curtain. The plays, generally, wero place, the first move being made by the founders, who of the spectacular order; without much literary merits carried the books in their aprons and two coal scuttles but well calculated to dazzle the eye of a youth of fifteen.
Not only had I never seen anything so grand, but I had That my father was one of the founders of the first li never seen anything of the kind. I had never been in a brary in his native town, and that I have been fortunate theater, or even a concert room, or seen any form of enough to be the founder of the last one, is certainly to public amusement. It was much the same with Davy" me one of the most interesting incidents of my life. We have said often, in public speeches, that I had never all fell under the fascination of tlie footlights, and every heard of a lineage for which I would exchange that of a opportunity to attend thetheater was eagerly embraced.
Such a father as mine was a characters. Thenceforth there was nothing for me but guide to be followed one of the sweetest, purest, and Shakespeare.
I seemed to be able to memorize him kindest natures I have ever known. Never before had I realized what I have stated that it was the theater which first magic lay in words. The rhythm and the melody aU stimulated my love for Shakespeare. In my messenger seemed to find a resting-place in me, to melt into a solid days the old Pittsburgh Theater was in its glory under mass which lay ready to come at call.
It was a new lan the charge of Mr. His telegraphic business was guage and its appreciation I certainly owe to dramatic done free, and the telegraph operators were given free representation, for, imtil I saw "Macbeth" played, my admission to the theater in return. This privilege ex interest in Shakespeare was not aroused. I had not read tended in some degree also to the messengers, who, I the plays.
Here though they be. My ladder upon wbich to climb upward like Shakespeare, cousin, Leander Morris, whom she had some hopes of a new friend. A few persons in Allegheny prob and being dipped. This was too much for the evangelist, ably not above a hundred in all had formed them although she should have remembered herfather passed selves into a Swedenborgian Society, in which our through that same experience and often preached for American relatives were prominent.
My mother, however, took was far from cordial. He was made aware that the fam no interest in Swedenborg. Although always inculcating ily record had suffered by his backsliding when at the respect for all forms of religion, and discouraging the very portals of the New Jerusalem revealed by Sweden ological disputes, she maintained for herself a marked borg and presented to him by one of the foremost dis reserve.
Her position might best be defined by the ciples his aunt. He began deprecatingly: Look at Andy, of this life well, troubling not about another, is the he is not a member of any church and you don't scold prime wisdom. Surely the Baptist Church is better than none. Andy, he's naked, but you are clothed the writings of Swedenborg, and much of the Old and in rags.
I might yet be reformed, being unattached; but tative guides for the conduct of life. I became deeply Leander had chosen a sect and that sect not of the New interested in the mysterious doctrines of Swedenborg, Jerusalem. As an That dear old woman fondly looked forward to a time appendix to the hymn-book of the society there were when I should become a shining light in the New Jeru short selections from tlie oratorios.
I fastened instinc salem, and I know it was sometimes not beyond the tively upon these, and although denied much of a voice, bounds of her imagination that I might blossom into yet credited with "expression," I was a constant at what she called a "preacher of the Word. The leader, Mr. Koethen, As I more and more wandered from man-made the I have reason to believe, often pardoned the discords I ology these fond hopes weakened, but my aunt's interest produced in the choir because of my enthusiasm in the in and affection for her first nephewj whom she had cause.
Handel's musical compositions were the ones that I as I suppose this decision would be arrived at to-day by an ignorant boy had chosen as favorites.
So the begin jiine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand ning of my musical education dates from the small choir jjomes in Ajnerica, and probably also in the majority of of the Swedenborgian Society of Pittsburgh.
There was scarcely an old Scottish song with somewhat of a day of enjoyment for themasses instead which I was not made familiar, both words and tune. My parents forty years ago. They were beyond the ortho father being one of the sweetest and most pathetic sing dox of the period when it was scarcely permissible, at ers I ever heard, I probably inherited his love of music least among the Scotch, to take a walk for pleasure or and of song, though not given his voice.
Confucius' ex read any but religious books on the Sabbath. I hear thee calling and I come.. As a messenger boy I had no holidays, with the exception of two weeks given me in the summer-time, which I spent boating on the river with cousins at my uncle's at East Liverpool, Ohio. I was very fond of skating, and in the winter about which 1 am speaking, the slack water of the river op posite our house was beautifully frozen over.
The ice was in splendid condition, and reaching home late Sat urday night the question arose whether I might be per mitted to rise early in the morning and go skating before church hours. No question of a more serious character could have been submitted to ordinary Scot tish parents. My mother was clear on the subject, that in the circumstances I should be allowed to skate as long as I liked. My father sa,id he believed it was right I. That was a day we cele brated.
The Carnegie family was free from debt. Old Mrs. Henderson lives to-day. I go to 1HAD served as messenger about ayear, when Colo her house as to a shrine, to see her upon my visits to nel John P. Glass, the manager of the downstairs Dunfermline; and whatever happens she can never be oflSice, who came in contact with the public, began forgotten.
Gone, gone with the othersI" Peace to the minutes during his absence. As Mr. Glass was a highly ashes of a dear, good, noble friend of my mother's. We stood in a row before the counter, that came from the operating-room were properly as and Mr. Glass paid each one in turn. I was at the head signed to the boys for prompt delivery. I did not spend my extra the other boys. My heart began to sink within me.
Dis dimes, but they knew not the reason. Every penny that grace seemed coming. What had I done or not done? I I could save I knew was needed at home. My parents was about to be told that there was no more work for were wise and nothing was withheld from me.
I was to disgrace the family. That was the keen every week the receipts of each of the three who were est pang of all. When all had been paid and the boys working my father, my mother, and myself. I also were gone, Mr. Glass took me behind the counter and knew all the expenditures.
We consulted upon the addi said that I was worth more than the other boys, and tions that could be made to our scanty stock of furniture he had resolved to pay me thirteen and a half doUafs and clothing and every new small article obtained was a month. There never was a family more united. Myheadswam; Tdoubted whetherI hadheardhimcor Day by day, as mother could spare a silver half- rectly.
He countedout the money. I don't know whether dollar, it was carefully placed in a stocking and hid un 1 thanked him; I don't believe I did. No subsequent from end to end of the bridge across the Allegheny success, or recognition of any kind, ever thrilled me as River'inside on the wagon track because the foot- this did.
I cannot even imagine one that could. Here was walk was too narrow. It was Saturday night. I handed heaven upon earth. My whole world was moved to over to mother, who was the treasurer of the family, the tears of joy. This was a new chance. I soon began to play with the Tom, a little boy of nine, and myself slept in the attic key and to talk with the boys who were at the other together, and after we were safely in bed I whispered stations who had like purposes to my own.
Whenever the secret to my dear little brother. Even at his early one learns to do anything he has never to wait long for age he knew what it meant, and we talked over the fu an opportunity of putting his knowledge to use.
It was then, for the first time, I sketched to him One morning I heard the Pittsburgh call given with how we would go into business together; that the firm of vigor. I ventiu'ed to answer, father and mother should yet ride in their carriage. At and let the slip run. It was Philadelphia that wanted to the time that seemed to us to embrace everything known send "a death message" to Pittsburgh immediately.
The Could I take it? I replied that I would try if they would old Scotch woman, whose daughter married a merchant send slowly. I succeeded in getting the message and ran in London, being asked by her son-in-law to come to out with it.
I waited anxiously for Mr. Brooks to come London and live near them, promising she should "ride in, and told him what I had dared to do. Fortunately, in her carriage," replied: It was not long before I was called sometimes should visit Dunfermline, their old home, in style.
The surprise was great and it took some mo We were blessed at this time with a rather indolent ments for them to grasp the situation, but it soon operator, who was only too glad to have me do his dawned upon them.
Then father's glance of loving pride work. It was then the practice for us to receive the mes and mother's blazing eye soon wet with tears, told their sages on a running slip of paper, from which the opera feeling. This led me to prac This was the first respppsible position I had occupied in tice the new method. One of the operators in the office, the telegraph service, and I was so anxious to be at Mr. Maclean, became expert at it, and encouraged me hand in case I should be needed, that one night very by his success.
I was surprised at the ease with which late I sat in the office during a storm, not wishing to cut -1 learned the new language. One day, desiring to take a off the connection. I ventured too near the key and for message in the absence of the operator, the old gentle my boldness was knocked off mystool.
Aflash of light- man who acted as copyist resented my presumption and yiing very nearly ended my career. After that I was refused to "copy" for a messenger boy. I shut off the noted in the office for caution during lightning storms. I shall never forget his surprise. He or the satisfaction of my superiors, and returned to Pitts dered me to give him back his pencil and pad, and after burgh surrounded with something like a halo, so far as that there was never any difficulty between dear old the other boys were concerned.
Promotion soon camei. Courtney Hughes and myself. He was my devoted A new operator was wanted and Mr.
Brooks telegraphed friend and copyist. Reid, then gen Soon after this incident Joseph Taylor, the operator eral superintendent of the line, another fine specmien of at Greensburg, thirty miles from Pittsburgh, wishing to the Scotsman, and took upon himself to recommend me be absent for two weeks, asked Mr.
Brooks if he could as an assistant operator. The telegram from Louisville not send some one to take his place. Brooks called in reply stated that Mr. Reid highly approved of pro me and asked whether I thought I could do the work.
Brooks considered him I replied at once in the affirmative. The result was that I began as a telegraphy "Well," he said, "we will send you out there for a operator at the tremendous salary of twenty-five dollars trial. To Mr. Brqoks I went out in the mail stage and had a most delight and Mr. Reid I owe my promotion from the messenger's ful trip. Scottish ancestry, and his sister happened to be passen teenth year and had served my apprenticeship.
It was my first excursion, and my first glimpse of now performing a man's part, no longer a boy's-rr the country. The hotel at Greensburg wasthe first pub earning a dollar every working day. He had not been with mea month when lie the food wonderfully fine. I began to instruct This was in Deep cuts and embankments near him and found him an apt pupil.
Reid, The Telegraph in Amefr tea. Greensburg were then being made for the Pennsylvania Reid was born near Dunfermline and forty years afterwards Mr, Car Railroad, and I often walked out in the early morning to negiewas able to securefor him the appomtment of United States Consul see the work going forward, little dreaming that I was dkt Dunfermline. The operatmg-room of a telegraph office is an excel gaining ground; already future millionairedom seemed lent school for a young man.
He there has to do with dawning. And Another step which exercised a decided influence over there my slight knowledge of British and European me was joining the "Webster Literary Society" along affairs soon stood me in good stead. Knowledge is sure with my companions, the trusty five already named. It always tells. We formed a select circle and stuck closely together. The foreign news was then received by wire from Cape This was quite an advantage for all of us. Wehad before Race, and the taking of successive "steamer news" was this formed a small debating club which met in Mr.
I liked this better Phipps's father's room in which his few journeymen than any other branch of the work, and it was soon shoemakers worked during the day. Tom Miller re tacitly assigned to me.
My guessing powers elected by the people? The "Webster" was then the diversion to fill up gaps instead of interrupting the sender fpremost club in the city and proud were we to be and spending minutes over a lost word or two. This was thought fit for membership. We had merely been pre not a dangerous practice in regard to foreign news, for paring ourselves in the cobbler's room.
Much of my reading became serious trouble. My knowledge of foreign affairs became such as had a bearing on forthcoming debates and that somewhat extensive, especially regarding the affairs of gave clearness and fixity to my ideas.
The self-posses Britain, and my guesses were quite safe, if I got the first sionI afterwards came to have before an audience may letter or two right. Make yourself perfectly at home before dispatches. Later on one man was appointed for all the your audience, and simply talk to them, not at them.
The accomplishment was then so rare me a dollar per week. This, my first work for the press, that people visited the office to be satisfied of the extra yielded very modest remuneration, to be sure; but it ordinary feat.
The family was gradually tion between Steubenville and Wheeling, a distance of. Quite right. There are holy ceive the entire business then passing between the depths which it is sacrilege to disturb. Silence is more and the West, and to send every hour or two the dis eloquent than words. My father was one of the most" patches in small boats down the river to Wheeling. He was kindness itself, although reserved.
Western tour just as we were becoming able to give him While at Steubenville I learned that my father life of leisure and comfort. Scott, one to whom the term "genius" in his I remember how deeply affected I was on finding that department may safely be applied. I was indignant that one of so fine a nature cation was necessary between him and his superior, Mr. But there was com Lombaert, general superintendent at Altoona. This fort in saying: One day you shall ride in your carriage. Scott had asked sensitive, very saving of praise a Scotch trait lest his ViiTTi "whether he thought that I could be ootained as his sons might be too greatly uplifted; but when touched clerk and telegraph operator, to which this young man he lost his self-control.
He is now an operator. He murmured slowly: But when I heard this I said at once: He can have me. I want to get out of a The voice trembled and he seemed ashamed of himself mere office life. Please go and tell him so.
The tear had to be wiped from his The result was I was engaged February 1,, at a eye, I fondly noticed, as he bade me good-night and told salary ofthirty-five dollars a month as Mr.
Scott's clerk me to run back to my oflSce. Those words rang in my and operator. A raise in wages from twenty-five to ear and warmed my heart for years and years. We under thirty-five dollars per month was the greatest I had stood each other. How reserved the Scot is! Where he ever known. The public telegraph line was temporarily. Scott's office at the outer depot and the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was given permission to use the wire at seasons when such use would not in terfere with the general public business, imtil their own CHAPTER VI line, then being built, was completed.
From the operating-room of the telegraph office I had now stepped into the open world, and the change at first was far from agreeable. I had just reached my eighteenth birthday, and I do not see how it could be possible for any boy to arrive at that age much freer from a knowledge of anything but what was pure and good.
I do not believe, up to that time, I had ever spoken a bad word in my life and seldom heard one. I knew nothing of the base and the vile. Fortunately I had always been brought in contact with good people. I was now plxmged at once into the company of coarse men, for the office was temporarily only aportion of the shops and the headquarters for the freight conductors, brakemen, and firemen.
All of them had access to the same room with Superintendent Scott and myself, and they availed themselves of it. This was adifferent world, indeed, from that to which I had been accustomed.
I was not happy about it. I ate, necessarily, of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil for the first time.
But there were still the sweet and pure surround ings of home, where nothing coarse or wicked ever en tered, and besides, there was the world inwhich I dwelt with my companions, all of them refined young men, striving to improve themselves and become respected citizens. I passed through this phase of my life detesting what was foreign to my nature and my early education.
Scotism, at chewing or smoking tobacco, also at swear he was not sociable, but rather stern and unbending. Lombaert added: I do not wish to suggest that the men of whom I have " You must come down and take tea with us to-night.
The I stanoimered out something of acceptance and awaited habit of swearing, with coarse talk, chewing and smok the appointed hour with great trepidation. Up to this ing tobacco, and snuffing were more prevalent then time I considered that invitation the greatest honor than to-day and meant less than in this age. Rail I had received. Lombaert was exceedingly kind, roading was new, and many rough characters were and Mr.
Lombaert's introduction of me to her was: But many of the "This is Mr. Scott's 'Andy.
And I must say that one and all of them w: I started next morning most kind to me. Many are yet living from whom I tot Pittsburgh with tlie pay-rolls and checks, as I hear occasionally and regard with affection. A change thought, securely placed under my waistcoat, as it came at last when Mr. Scott had his own office which was too large a package for my pockets. I was a very he and I occupied. Scott to Altoona to get the riding upon the engine. I got upon the engine that took monthly pay-rolls and checks.
The railroad line was not me to Hollidaysburg where the State railroad over completed over the Allegheny Mountains at that time, the mountain was joined up. It was a very rough ride, and I had to pass over the inclined planes which made indeed, and at one place, uneasily feeling for the pay-roll the journey a remarkable one to me. Altdona was then package, I was horrified to find that the joltmg of the composed of a few houses built by the company.
The train had shaken it out. I had lost it! It was failure would ruin me. To have been sent for the pay there that I saw for the first time the great man in our rolls and checks and to lose the package, which I should railroad field Mr. Lombaert, general superintendent. Would he reverse road, so that "Davy," "Bob," and "Andy" were his engine and run back for it?
Kind soul, he did so. We had all left the I watched the line, and on the very banks of a largfe telegraph company for the Pennsylvania Railroad stream, within a few feet of the water, I saw that pack Company. I ran down Mr. Lombaert was very different from Mr. Scott; and grasped it. It was all right. The engineer and fireman were the flaming organ of freedom certamly marked a stage in only persons who knew of my carelessness, and I had my career.
I kept that "Tribune" for years. Looking their assurance that it would not be told. Suppose that package had fallen just a few feet the curse, but it was not slavery alone that needed farther away and been swept down by the stream, how abolition.
The loose Federal system with State rights many years of faithful service would it have required so prominent would inevitably have prevented, or at upon my part to wipe out the effect of that one piece of least long delayed, tlie formation of one solid, all- carelessness! I could no longer have enjoyed the con powerful, central government.
The tendency under fidence of those whose confidence was essential to suc the Southern idea was centrifugal. To-day it is centrip cess had fortune not favored me. I have never since etal, all drawn toward the center under the sway of believed in being too hard on a young man, even if he the Supreme Court, the decisions of which are, very does conmait a dreadful mistake or two; and I have al properly, half the dicta of lawyers and half the work ways tried in judging such to remember the difference it of statesmen.
Uniformity in many fields must be se would have made in my own career but for an accident cured. Marriage, divorce, bankruptcy, raihoad super which restored to me that lost package at the edge of the vision, control of corporations, and some other depart streama few miles fromHoUidaysburg.
I could gostraight ments should in some measure be brought under one to the very spot to-day, and often as I passed over that head. These are package lying upon the bank. It seemed to be calling: We had to supply it At an early age I became a strong anti-slavery parti with operators. Most of these were taught in our offices san and hailed with enthusiasm the first national meet ing of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, February at Pittsburgh.
The telegraph business continued to in 22, , although too young to vote. I watched the crease with startling rapidity. We could scarcely pro prominent men as they walked the streets, lost in admi vide facilities fast enough. New telegraph offices were required. Some time before I had organized among the railroad men a club I appointed superintendent of the telegraph department March 11, I have been told that "Davy" andmy- of a hundred for the "New York Weekly Tribune," seH are entitled to the creditof being the first to employ and ventured occasionally upon short notes to the young women as telegraph operators in the United States great editor, Horace Greeley, who did so much to arouse upon railroads, or perhaps in any branch.
At all events, the people to action upon this vital question. Miss Maria passenger train eastward was proceeding with a flagman Hogan.
The Gospel of Wealth Summary
She was the operator at the freight station in in advance at every curve. The freight trains in both Pittsburgh, and with her were placed successive pupils, directions were all standing still upon the sidings.
Our experience was that Scott was not to be found. Finally I could not resist yoimg women operators were more to be relied upon the temptation to plunge in, take the responsibility, than young men. Among all the new occupations in give ''train orders," and set matters going. I knew them than that of telegraph operator. Scott was one of the most delightful superiors for me if I erred. On the other hand, I could bring in the that anybody could have and I soon became warmly wearied freight-train men who had lain out all night.
I attached to him. He was my great man and all the hero could set everything in motion. I knew I could. I had worship that is inherent in youth I showered upon him. Scott's orders. I knew just I soon began placing him in imagination in the presi what to do, and so I began.
I gave the orders in his dency of the great Pennsylvania Raiboad a position name, started every train, sat at the instrument watch which he afterwards attained. Under him I gradually ing every tick, carried the trains along from station to performed duties not strictly belonging to my depart station, took extra precautions, and had everything ment and I can attribute my decided advancement in running smoothly when Mr. Scott at last reached the the service to one well-remembered incident.
He had heard of the delays. His first words were:. The railway was a single line. Telegraph orders to "Well! How are matters? No began to write his orders. I had then to speak, and one but the superintendent himself was permitted to timidly said: Scott, I could not find you anywhere and I system, or indeed of any other system, I believe, at gave these orders in your name early this morning.
It was then a dangerous expedient to give "Are they going all right? Where is the Eastern telegraphic orders, for the whole system of railway Express? It was necessary for Mr. Scott to go out night after night to break-downs or wrecks to of every train on the line freights, ballast trains, everything showed him the answers of the various superintend the clearing of the line.
He was necessarily conductors, the latest reports at the stations where absent from the office on many mornings. All was right. He looked One morning I reached the office and found that a in my face for a second. I scarcely dared look in hid. Still he said nothing. After a little he moved away from my desk to his own, and that was the periodical visits to Pittsburgh.
This reserve I learned afterwards was purely the result of shyness. I was sur end of it. He was afraid to approve what I had done, yet he had not censured me. If it came out all right, prised when in ]Mr.
Scott's office he came to the tele it was all right; if it came out all wrong, the responsi graph instrument and greeted me as "Scott's Andy. So it stood, but I noticed that he came But I learned afterwards that he had heard of my in very regularly and in good time for some mornings train-running exploit.
The battle of life is already half after that.Brooks called in reply stated that Mr. I don't know whether dollar, it was carefully placed in a stocking and hid un 1 thanked him; I don't believe I did.
I started next morning most kind to me. SCOTT was promoted to be the general super duties and to start the traffic. I was indignant that one of so fine a nature cation was necessary between him and his superior, Mr.
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